CNC lathe technology is currently the most widely used. We have talked about that some products which are difficult to be processed by general machine tools need to adopt CNC lathe technology. So what are the main processing objects and contents of this technology? Although CNC lathes are similar in structure and processing technology to ordinary lathes, CNC turning parts in China are controlled by electronic computer digital signals through pre-programmed machining programs, so there are many differences. It has many requirements, high machining precision, automatic shifting, and linear and arc interpolation. The ordinary lathe cannot meet these conditions, and the processing range is not wide.
Therefore, compared with the ordinary lathe, the main processing contents of CNC turning parts are turning outer circle, turning inner hole, turning end face and turning thread. The main processing objects are also the following.
1. Parts with high precision requirements. The accuracy requirements of parts mainly refer to the accuracy requirements of size, shape, position, and surface. The surface accuracy mainly refers to the surface roughness. Because the CNC lathe has good rigidity, high precision in manufacturing and toolset, and can be manually and accurately compensated by manual compensation and automatic compensation, it can process parts with high dimensional accuracy, and in some occasions, it can achieve the effect of grinding by car. In addition, since the movement of the CNC lathe is realized by high-precision interpolation calculation and servo drive, it can process parts with high dimensional accuracies such as straightness, roundness, and cylindricity. Since the CNC lathe can complete the processing in one time, it can effectively improve the positional accuracy of the parts and the processing quality is stable. The CNC lathe has a constant linear speed cutting function, so it can not only machine parts with small and uniform surface roughness but also suitable for turning parts with different surface roughness requirements. Generally, the machining precision of CNC lathes can reach 0.001 mm, and the surface roughness Ra can reach 0.16 μm (precision CNC lathe can reach 0.02 μm).
2.A part with a small surface roughness value. The CNC lathe has a constant line speed cutting function and can process parts with small and uniform surface roughness. Because the material roughness, the finishing allowance, and the tool have been fixed, the surface roughness depends on the feed rate and cutting speed. The cutting speed changes, resulting in inconsistent surface roughness after turning. Using the constant line cutting function of the CNC lathe, the optimum line speed can be used to cut the cone, the spherical surface and the end surface, so that the surface roughness value after turning is small and consistent.
3.Parts with complex surface contours. Because CNC lathes have linear and circular interpolation functions (some CNC lathes also have some non-circular curve interpolation functions), it can turn complex shapes of revolving parts consisting of any straight line and various flat curves, including The list curve that is processed and cannot be described by the equation is calculated by fitting.
4.Parts with special threads. CNC lathes have the function of processing all kinds of threads, including straight, tapered and face threads of any lead, increasing the lead, reducing the lead and the thread that requires a smooth transition between the lead and the variable lead. A pulse encoder is usually mounted in the headstock, and the motion of the spindle is transmitted to the pulse encoder 1:1 through the timing belt. The servo motor is used to drive the spindle to rotate. When the spindle rotates, the pulse encoder sends a detection pulse signal to the numerical control system, so that the rotation of the spindle motor and the cutting feed of the tool holder are synchronized, that is, the spindle rotates once when the thread is processed. The tool holder Z moves the workpiece in a lead movement relationship. Furthermore, the precision of the thread is high and the surface roughness is small.
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